Emissions of CO2 - from Gas Fuel Consumption (CDIAC)
Publications containing historical energy statistics make it possible to estimate fossil fuel CO2 emissions back to 1751. Etemad et al. (1991) published a summary compilation that tabulates coal, brown coal, peat, and crude oil production by nation and year. Footnotes in the Etemad et al.(1991) publication extend the energy statistics time series back to 1751. Summary compilations of fossil fuel trade were published by Mitchell (1983, 1992, 1993, 1995). Mitchell's work tabulates solid and liquid fuel imports and exports by nation and year. These pre-1950 production and trade data were digitized and CO2 emission calculations were made following the procedures discussed in Marland and Rotty (1984) and Boden et al. (1995). Further details on the contents and processing of the historical energy statistics are provided in Andres et al. (1999).
The 1950 to present CO2 emission estimates are derived primarily from energy statistics published by the United Nations (2001), using the methods of Marland and Rotty (1984). The energy statistics were compiled primarily from annual questionnaires distributed by the U.N. Statistical Office and supplemented by official national statistical publications. As stated in the introduction of the Statistical Yearbook, "in a few cases, official sources are supplemented by other sources and estimates, where these have been subjected to professional scrutiny and debate and are consistent with other independent sources." Data from the U.S. Department of Interior's Geological Survey (USGS 2000) were used to estimate CO2 emitted during cement production. Values for emissions from gas flaring were derived primarily from U.N. data but were supplemented with data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (1994), Rotty (1974), and data provided by G. Marland. Greater details about these methods are provided in Marland and Rotty (1984), Boden et al. (1995), and Andres et al. (1999).
Since 1751 roughly 270 billion tons of carbon have been released to the atmosphere from the consumption of fossil fuels and cement production. Half of these emissions have occurred since the mid 1970s. The 1998 fossil-fuel emission estimate for global CO2 emissions, 6608 million metric tons of carbon, represents a 0.3% decline from 1997. This small 1997-98 decline is the first decline in the global record since a 1.6% decline from 1991-92.
Globally, liquid and solid fuels accounted for 77.7% of the emissions from fossil-fuel burning in 1998. Combustion of gas fuels (e.g., natural gas) accounted for 18.5% (1220 million metric tons of carbon) of the total emissions from fossil fuels in 1998 and reflects a gradually increasing global utilization of natural gas. Emissions from cement production fell slightly to 207 million metric tons of carbon, a twenty-fold increase since the 1920s. Emissions from gas flaring for 1998 were estimated to be 47 million metric tons of carbon, well below the levels of the 1970s. Collectively, emissions from cement production and gas flaring comprised 4% of total emissions for 1998.
This document provides synopses of frequently used time series of global-change data.
It provides estimates of global, regional, and national CO22emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels, gas flaring, and the production of cement.
Data records are presented in multipage formats, each dealing with a specific site, region, or emissions species. The data records include tables; graphs; discussions of methods for collecting, measuring, and reporting the data; trends in the data, and references to literature providing further information. Instructions for citing specific data in Trends Online are provided for each compiled data set.
Thousand Metric Tons of CO2
GEO Data Category:
Emissions of GHG, ODS, Dust, Metals
Pollution, Air, Emissions of CO2 from Gas Fuel Consumption, national level, CDIAC
Robert M. Cushman
Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center
Environmental Sciences Division
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
11, Chemin des Anemones
+41 22 917 82 94
+41 22 917 80 29
GIS Data Info
Statistics Data Info
The value "-9999" corresponds to "No Data".
Calculated pre 1991-1992 relative country share
Former Yugoslavia SFR:
Pre-1992 relative shares of the 15 republics of the former USSR calculated based on data available after 1992, they are exclusively used for the regional/subregional and global aggregations.
Pre-1993 relative shares of the Czech Republic and Slovakia of the former Czechoslovakia calculated based on data available after 1993, they are exclusively used for the regional/subregional and global aggregations.
Pre-1992 values, given by the provider, for the former Yugoslavia SFR are exclusively used for the regional/subregional and global aggregations.
The data is recalculated from emissions of Carbon, used by the CDIAC (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov). The Carbon emissions were converted to CO2 by multiplying the ratios of molecular weights, 44/12 or 3.67.
Data for France includes Monaco;
Data for Italy includes San Marino;
Emissions of CO2 - from Gas Fuel Consumption (CDIAC): Annual estimations of CO2 emissions from gas Gas Fuel Consumption, primarily derived from U.N. data. Thereafter supplemented with data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration, Rotty (1974), and with a few national estimates provided by G. Marland. For information about the data collection methodology used by Rotty (1974) and G. Marland see http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov.
The sum of emissions estimates for all countries is not equal to the estimate of global total emissions because :
1. The global total includes emissions from bunker fuels (i.e., fuels used by ships and aircraft during international trade) whereas these are not included in any national totals.
2. The global total includes estimates for the oxidation of non-fuel hydrocarbon products (e.g., asphalt) whereas national totals do not.
3. National totals include annual changes in fuel stocks whereas the global total does not.
4. Due to statistical differences in the international statistics, the sum of exports from all exporters is not identical to the sum of imports by all importers.