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Title
Title:
Marine Protected Areas (IUCN Categories I-VI) - Number
SubTitle:
Subregional level
Filename:  
sreg_marine_protected_number
 
 
 
General Description
Abstract:
All protected areas in this table combine natural areas of at least 1,000 hectares in five World Conservation Union (IUCN) management categories. IUCN defines a 'marine protected area' as: "any area of intertidal or subtidal terrain, together with its overlying water and associated flora and fauna, historical and cultural features, which has been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment." These marine protected areas (MPAs) include areas that are fully marine to areas that are have only a small area of intertidal land. Many of these MPAs have large terrestrial areas. The extent of the marine portion of most protected areas is rarely documented. The degree of protection varies from one country to another and it may bear little relationship to the legal status of any site. "Littoral" is defined as any site which is known to incorporate at least some intertidal area. Such sites can also include marine and/or terrestrial elements. All sites with mangrove and saltmarsh communities are recorded as littoral. "Marine" is defined as any site which is known to incorporate at least some subtidal area permanently submerged under the ocean. Such sites can also include littoral and terrestrial elements. All sites with coral reefs and seagrasses are recorded as marine. The categories of marine and littoral are not exclusive. One protected area can be both littoral and marine, therefore adding numbers under these two different categories may produce a higher number than the total for MPAs. Following are the definitions of IUCN Management categories I-VI. Category Ia. Strict Nature Reserve: protected area managed mainly for science. Area of land and/or sea possessing some outstanding or representative ecosystems, geological or physiological features and/or species, available primarily for scientific research and/or environmental monitoring. Category Ib. Wilderness Area: protected area managed mainly for wilderness protection. Large area of unmodified or slightly modified land, and/or sea, retaining its natural character and influence, without permanent or significant habitation, which is protected and managed so as to preserve its natural condition. Category II. National Park: protected area managed mainly for ecosystem protection and recreation. Natural area of land and/or sea, designated to a) protect the ecological integrity of one or more ecosystems for present and future generations; b) exclude exploitation or occupation inimical to the purposes of designation of the area and c) provide a foundation for spiritual, scientific, educational, recreational and visitor opportunities, all of which must be environmentally and culturally compatible. Category III. Natural Monument: protected area managed mainly for conservation of specific natural features. Area containing one, or more, specific natural or natural/cultural feature which is of outstanding or unique value because of its inherent rarity, representative or aesthetic qualities or cultural significance. Category IV. Habitat/Species Management Area: protected area managed mainly for conservation through management intervention. Area of land and/or sea subject to active intervention for management purposes so as to ensure the maintenance of habitats and/or to meet the requirements of specific species. Category V. Protected Landscape/Seascape: protected area managed mainly for landscape/seascape conservation and recreation. Area of land, with coast and sea as appropriate, where the interaction of people and nature over time has produced an area of distinct character with significant aesthetic, ecological and/or cultural value, and often with high biological diversity. Safeguarding the integrity of this traditional interaction is vital to the protection, maintenance and evolution of such an area. Category VI. Managed Resource Protected Area: protected area managed mainly for the sustainable use of natural ecosystems. Area containing predominantly unmodified natural systems, managed to ensure long term protection and maintenance of biological diversity, while providing at the same time a sustainable flow of natural products and services to meet community needs. Nationally protected areas listed in this file do not include locally protected or provincially protected sites, or privately-owned areas. Please refer to the original source for further information on the variables and collection methodologies or to the IUCN Web site, available at: http://www.iucn.org/themes/wcpa/index.html
Purpose:
A marine protected area is an area of sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biodiversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means. Marine parks, nature reserves and other marine protected areas can include: reefs, seagrass beds, shipwrecks, archaeological sites, tidal lagoons, mudflats, saltmarshes, mangroves, rock platforms, underwater areas on the coast and seabed in deep water. Some of the Benefits of Marine Protected Areas: - maintaining biodiversity - protecting endangered or threatened species such as whales, marine turtles and seagrass meadows and their habitats - enhancing fisheries by ensuring breeding areas are not degraded and catch limits are sustainable - providing opportunities for research - conserving our cultural heritage, such as sites of Aboriginal significance
Units:
Number of Sites
GEO Theme:
Biodiversity
GEO Data Category:   
Protected Areas and Environmental Protection
Type:
Other Documents
Subtype:
-----
Language:
English
Status:
Complete
Maintenance:
Unknown
 
 
 
Keywords
GEMET Theme:
Natural areas, landscape, ecosystems
Free Keywords:
Marine, Protected Areas, IUCN Classification, Categories I-V, number, subregional level
 
 
 
Online Reference
URL:
No reference for download
File Format:
-----
 
 
 
Spatial Reference
Coverage:
World
Coordinates:
 
North
90
 
West -180
 
180 East
 
-90
South
 
Region:
World
Subregion:
-----
Resolution:
Subregion
 
 
 
Temporal Reference
Covered Time:
2002
 
 
 
Responsability
Person:
Information Office
Organization:
UNEP-WCMC
Address:
219 Huntingdon Road
 
 
Postal Code:
CB3
City:
Cambridge
State:
ODL
Country:
United Kingdom
Phone:
+44 (0)1223 277314
Fax:
+44 (0)1223 277136
Email:
info@unep-wcmc.org
 
 
Publisher:
UNEP-WCMC
Publ. Place:
Cambridge
 
 
Publ. Year:
2002
Data Source:
UNEP-WCMC
Data Provider:
UNEP-WCMC
Copyright:
UNEP-WCMC
User Constr.:
Public
 
 
 
Metadata Information
Person:
Gregory Giuliani
Organization:
UNEP/DEWA/GRID-Geneva
Address:
11, Chemin des Anemones
 
 
Postal Code:
1219
City:
Chatelaine
State:
Geneva
Country:
Switzerland
Phone:
+41 22 917 82 94
Fax:
+41 22 917 80 29
Email:
geo@grid.unep.ch
 
 
Date:
20020503
 
 
 
 
 
GIS Data Info
Projection:
-----
 
 
Min. Scale:
-----
Max. Scale
-----
Data Resol.:
-----
Data Format:
-----
 
 
 
Statistics Data Info
Aggregation method
Mehtod:
Sum
Weight factor:
-----
Comments:
The data is aggregated at subregional, regional and global level.
The value "-9999" corresponds to "No Data".
 
Interpolations/Extrapolations
Interpolations:
None
Extrapolations:
None
Method:
Other
Comments:
-----
 
Calculated pre 1991-1992 relative country share
Former USSR:
None
Former Yugoslavia SFR:
None
Former Czechoslovakia:
None
Former Ethiopia:
None
Comments:
-----
 
General comments
Country notes:
-----
Definitions:
-----
Comments:
All protected areas in this table combine natural areas of at least 1,000 hectares in five World Conservation Union (IUCN) management categories. IUCN defines a 'marine protected area' as: "any area of intertidal or subtidal terrain, together with its overlying water and associated flora and fauna, historical and cultural features, which has been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment." These marine protected areas (MPAs) include areas that are fully marine to areas that are have only a small area of intertidal land. Many of these MPAs have large terrestrial areas. The extent of the marine portion of most protected areas is rarely documented. The degree of protection varies from one country to another and it may bear little relationship to the legal status of any site. Following are the definitions of IUCN Management categories I-VI. Category Ia. Strict Nature Reserve: protected area managed mainly for science. Area of land and/or sea possessing some outstanding or representative ecosystems, geological or physiological features and/or species, available primarily for scientific research and/or environmental monitoring. Category Ib. Wilderness Area: protected area managed mainly for wilderness protection. Large area of unmodified or slightly modified land, and/or sea, retaining its natural character and influence, without permanent or significant habitation, which is protected and managed so as to preserve its natural condition. Category II. National Park: protected area managed mainly for ecosystem protection and recreation. Natural area of land and/or sea, designated to a) protect the ecological integrity of one or more ecosystems for present and future generations; b) exclude exploitation or occupation inimical to the purposes of designation of the area and c) provide a foundation for spiritual, scientific, educational, recreational and visitor opportunities, all of which must be environmentally and culturally compatible. Category III. Natural Monument: protected area managed mainly for conservation of specific natural features. Area containing one, or more, specific natural or natural/cultural feature which is of outstanding or unique value because of its inherent rarity, representative or aesthetic qualities or cultural significance. Category IV. Habitat/Species Management Area: protected area managed mainly for conservation through management intervention. Area of land and/or sea subject to active intervention for management purposes so as to ensure the maintenance of habitats and/or to meet the requirements of specific species. Category V. Protected Landscape/Seascape: protected area managed mainly for landscape/seascape conservation and recreation. Area of land, with coast and sea as appropriate, where the interaction of people and nature over time has produced an area of distinct character with significant aesthetic, ecological and/or cultural value, and often with high biological diversity. Safeguarding the integrity of this traditional interaction is vital to the protection, maintenance and evolution of such an area. Category VI. Managed Resource Protected Area: protected area managed mainly for the sustainable use of natural ecosystems. Area containing predominantly unmodified natural systems, managed to ensure long term protection and maintenance of biological diversity, while providing at the same time a sustainable flow of natural products and services to meet community needs. For more information on the variables and collection methodologies see original source or the IUCN Web site: http://wcpa.iucn.org/wcpainfo/protectedareas.html. Copyright c 2002 (Aggregations) United Nations Environment Programme/DEWA/GRID-Geneva. Data aggregation made by Andrea DeBono and Ola Nordbeck (UNEP/DEWA/GRID-Geneva).