Plantation refers to forest stands established artificially by afforestation and reforestation for industrial and non-industrial usage. Reforestation does not include regeneration of old tree crops (through either natural regeneration or forest management), although some countries may report regeneration as reforestation. Many trees are also planted for non-industrial uses, such as village wood lots. Non-industrial plantations include those established for fuelwood production, soil protection, amenity or other purposes. They do not include plantations of agro-forestry crops, such as rubber and oil palm. Reforestation data often exclude this component. The data presented here reflect plantation survival rate as estimated by FAO. Plantation figures correspond to reported area, i.e., areas reported to be present either by government, industry, or some other outside source. Reported areas are usually accumulated, planted area and may be different from the actual area of plantation that exists on the ground. Plantation areas in developed countries, with a few exceptions, are not presented in this table because of the difficulty in distinguishing between natural forests and plantations in many countries. The data for plantation extent 1995 cover the areas of forest plantations of all species in 90 tropical and subtropical countries. Tropical countries are defined as those countries having more than 50% of their land area between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn while subtropical countries are those bordering the tropics. Total, percent and annual percent change all reflect the increase or decrease in plantation area between 1990 and 1995. Total change in plantation area, is the difference in extent of plantations between 1990 and 1995 in thousands of hectares. Average annual percent change is shown as a percentage of the exponential growth rate. If negative, these figures reflect net loss in plantation area. Positive change figures reflect net afforestation within a country or region. Readers are encouraged to refer to the original sources and the latest country inventories that use satellite data or extensive ground data for estimates of forest cover and deforestation. FAO is currently finalizing an update of the Forest Resource Assessment for the world, which is expected to be published in the year 2000. Please refer to the original source for further information on the variables and collection methodologies.
FAO defines forest plantations as "Forest stands established by planting or/and seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation. They are either: of introduced species (all planted stands) or intensively managed stands of indigenous species."
GEO Data Category:
Vegetation and Land Cover
Forest, plantation, average annual change, subregional level
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Global Forest Resource
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GIS Data Info
Statistics Data Info
The data is only aggregated if at least 75 % of the observations are available (i.e. % of population or % of area or % of countries) on an annual basis.
The value "-9999" corresponds to "No Data"
Calculated pre 1991-1992 relative country share
Former Yugoslavia SFR:
Plantation Average Annual Change - Total is the annual change of a forest established
by planting and/or seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation. It consists of
introduced species or, in some cases, indigenous species.
Forest plantation and natural forests are included in the term forest, a term that refers to
land with a tree cover of more than 10 percent and area of more than 0.5 ha. Forests are
determined both by the presence of trees and the absence of other predominant land uses.
The trees should be able to reach a minimum height of 5 m. Young stands that have not yet
reached, but are expected to reach, a crown density of 10m percent and tree height of 5 m
are included under forest, as are temporarily unstocked areas. The term includes forests
used for purposes of production, protection, multiple use or conservation (i.e. forest in
national parks, nature reserves and other protected areas), as well as forest stands on
agricultural lands (e.g. windbreaks and shelterbelts of trees with a width of more than 20 m)
and rubberwood plantations and cork oak stands. The term specifically excludes stands of
trees established primarily for agricultural production, for example fruit tree plantations. It
also excludes trees planted in agroforestry systems.
Copyright c 2002 (Aggregations) United Nations Environment Programme/DEWA/GRID-Geneva.
Data aggregation made by Andrea DeBono and Ola Nordbeck (UNEP/DEWA/GRID-Geneva).